Donald Trump Jr.'s Messages With WikiLeaks Point to Campaign-Finance Violations
Watch Mother Needs Reassurance streaming with your membership. Starring pornstars Jodi West. Watch more Family Roleplaying, Doggy and Cowgirl clips at Jodi West. Watch Mother Needs Reassurance streaming video free with your membership to Jodi West Official Membership Site. Starring pornstars Jodi West. Disclaimer: ymci.info is an automatic search engine allowing consenting adults to find free porn videos. The administration of this site doesn’t own.
Previous The Best Comments Of May And June LIVE CHAT! Everything You Wanted To Ask About Street Food With My Guest Jodi Ettenberg. Watch Mother Needs Reassurance streaming video free with your membership to Jodi West Official Membership Site. Starring pornstars Jodi West. Watch Mother Needs Reassurance from Son - Jodi West. ymci.info - Earn money from your video uploads, or just watch some high quality incest porn for free.
Disclaimer: ymci.info is an automatic search engine allowing consenting adults to find free porn videos. The administration of this site doesn’t own. Donald Trump Jr.'s Messages With WikiLeaks Point to Campaign-Finance Violations. At the group’s request, the president’s son promoted Russia-hacked materials to. jodi west mother needs reassurance Porn clips. jodi west. Description: jodi west. Source: youjizz. Mother needs reassurance. Wed, .
The purpose of this Guide is to assist sustainability officers and business procurement managers to develop and implement their wood and paper-based procurement policies. This Guide identifies and reviews issues central to procurement of wood and paper-based products, and highlights resources that can be of help. Ten Chapters and their associated overview — the list can be used as a checklist and as a tool for understanding what it is and why it matters;.
Forests play a critical role for the global environment, population, and economy. The forest-based sector employs An estimated million people depend on forests for their livelihoods, while hundreds of thousands of businesses rely on them for fiber and raw materials. One such action involves seeking out sustainably produced wood and paper-based goods. Developed in consultation with multiple stakeholders, this updated Guide and Resource Kit seeks to promote the demand of sustainably produced wood and paper-based products and support procurement managers in making informed choices by:.
The third edition of this guide incorporates the most up-to-date developments on the legality of forest products, the latest advances in technological and data-management systems to trace and control forest product supply chains, an expanded overview of the social implications of forest products, and updates to the chapters on climate change and recycled fibers. Both large and small businesses need to be proactive in supporting sustainable forest management and reversing deforestation via their procurement practices.
This guide will help do just that. Almost half of the Earth's original forest cover has been converted to other land uses Bryant et al. Interest in procurement of wood and paper-based goods produced in a sustainable manner is growing. Concerned consumers, retailers, investors, communities, governments, and other groups increasingly want to know that in buying and consuming these products they are making positive social and environmental contributions.
Sustainable procurement can help maintain a company's social license to operate Kemp, It can help reduce reputation risks and, ultimately, help secure sustainable supplies Kennard, Sustainable procurement can also be used to align companies with their stakeholders' values and make organizations along the supply chain from forest owners and producers to retailers more resilient to changing business conditions. The growing demand for sustainably produced wood and paper-based goods can lead to improved forest management.
Sustainably managed forests are a renewable source of raw materials; these forests also provide services such as clean air and water, wildlife habitat, and sometimes recreation opportunities Figure 1. Sustainably produced wood and paper-based goods can be a wise choice compared to other materials, because:.
The purpose of this Guide and resource kit is to assist sustainability officers and business procurement managers, especially major purchasers of wood and paper-based products that do not have 'in house' forest and forestry expertise. It identifies and reviews central issues, and highlights tools that can be used to assist sustainable procurement.
It should be noted that not all aspects of potential concern and risk apply to all forested regions of the world.
The guide is designed as:. The past few years have seen a proliferation of tools, projects, initiatives, publications and labels to aid sustainable procurement of wood and paper-based products.
To help those who are new to the subject, a selected number of these tools are highlighted and characterized see Resource Directory.
Traceability is the ability to track sources of wood in finished products through the supply chain to — as close as is practical — their origins. Tracing the origin of wood and paper-based products is not always straightforward. Supply chains can sometimes link many wood producers and dealers across several countries, and procurement portfolios can be complex, with multiple supply chains Figures 2 and 3.
Forest products are difficult to trace because, a finished product might include different types of trees, and many products can come from the same tree Figure 4 above. It is easier to establish traceability for solid wood products than for paper-based products.
Paper products are manufactured in pulp mills that typically draw wood from many sources. In the most complex cases, a network of dealers buying wood from many different loggers, landowners and sawmills may supply a pulp mill Box 1 below. In a sawmill, logs usually lose their link to individual landowners in a sorting yard in the same way an agricultural business would combine grain from individual farmers in a common silo.
The wood collected from sawmills — often chips that are by-products of solid-wood products manufacturing — further lose their individual identity during the paper making process. There is no single standard supply chain for wood and paper-based products and all supply chains are different.
There are, however, common elements that can be useful to clarify the connections among various manufacturing points, the product flows, and the environmental and social issues associated figure below.
Solid wood, engineered wood, and paper-based products are manufactured using different technologies, but they may all come from the same forest or even the same tree. Some forest-based industries often use all parts of the tree for different products in a system of integrated processing facilities. In other instances, only the most valuable portions of the best trees are used. Raw tropical hardwoods are often produced under these circumstances.
There is great variability in supply chains depending on the country, region, or local circumstances. In the most complicated cases, a sawmill, pulp mill and engineered wood plant are fed by a network of product flows and business relationships.
Mills frequently incorporate wood from various sources involving a large number of actors. For instance, a pulp mill in the Eastern United States that produces , tons Mt of paperboard per year uses 2,, tons of wood chips. The mill procures these chips directly from landowners, some suppliers, sawmills and 10 shipping operations MeadWestvaco estimates for Tracking these wood flows can be challenging, but it is possible to do it to a degree that is satisfactory for sustainable procurement e.
Several technological approaches are emerging to help trace and verify the origin of the raw materials in products Table 1 below.
There are also new technological applications that seek to increase the overall transparency of the supply chains regarding the origin of the raw materials Table 2 below. Wood samples are taken from standing trees before harvest as part of the forest inventory process and stored for later use.
Samples are taken from the same trees and logs during harvesting and processing, according to harvest and log transportation records. The second set of samples is physically matched to the first set and the DNA of the paired samples is compared. If the DNA is an exact match, this proves the two samples come from the same tree, validating the documentation. Testing is applied to a small, randomly selected portion of paired samples to minimize testing costs USD 0.
Double Helix Tracking Technologies Pte. Genetic variation within a population of trees can be measured and mapped out. DNA extracted from wood samples can be compared to these maps to determine origin and verify claims. This works even with finished products. Samples of paper are broken down into slurry and examined under a microscope by trained analysts. While fiber analysis is not a traceability tool, it can identify certain characteristics about the fibers that compose paper products, including whether the species are hardwood or softwood varieties and, in some cases, the genus of the trees.
Integrated Paper Services Phone: Stable isotopes are used to confirm and verify the origin of timber species. Stable isotopes are chemical elements e. Databases of stable isotopes can be used to map the distribution of timber species and identify and verify origin of the wood even in finished products. String is an online, data recording, tool that allows users at all phases in the supply chain to request information about products from their suppliers. Users can generate reports from the data to get a complete picture of the flow of products throughout the supply chain, and all the available data.
String is flexible, and it can be customized to record any data about any type of product see below. The system has been piloted in a number of industries including timber, textiles and minerals. Currently buyers and sellers of FSC certified products are required to maintain paper records of the volumes of the products traded. Under the OCP, the information and claims about certified products will be kept in an electronic format and all entities along the supply chain will be able to access the data and document the phases of the product in the supply chain.
The OCP build on the String platform above. EPAT is an online tool designed for paper producers to report environmental performance data. Mills can share this data with their customers through EPAT to support purchasing decisions.
Customers can specify paper requirements based on their environmental sourcing commitments. Understanding the position of a company in the supply chain can help identify priorities and key areas of influence. RADIX Tree is an online platform for connecting and sharing supply chain data as well as enabling visibility and risk in the supply chain. Over 80, companies are represented on the platform, including a substantial coverage of the timber and paper industry and all PEFC certified companies.
To be represented in the platform, users invite their suppliers to share supply chain data on their products in a simple and efficient matter. Once the data is uploaded, the retailer can see and verify product data, ask customized questionnaires and trace shipments. Requesting documentation from suppliers is a common method of tracing the origin of raw materials. A supply chain can be regarded as a chain of legally binding contractual relationships; purchasers can trace the supply chain through contracts, and require that their suppliers commit to providing raw materials that were harvested in compliance with the law, or meet other customer specifications 1.
In places where the law — both background law and contract law — is strong and properly enforced, sales contracts can be a good compliance mechanism. All of these documents should carry appropriate stamps and seals from the relevant governmental or certification agencies. However, false documentation can be common in certain countries and additional systems to trace the raw materials back to their origins, within the limits of feasibility, may be needed in some cases.
Working with those directly involved in the supply chain will help develop a better understanding of the challenges, costs and other impacts associated with implementing additional tracking systems. Forest managers, forest owners, government agencies and certification bodies active in the area can provide useful information.
A high degree of vertical integration makes traceability simpler. However, in some countries such as in the United States, companies are becoming less integrated, selling off their forest lands and thereby externalizing traceability. In some cases competition laws may limit the amount of information that customer and supplier may exchange. In the US, for instance, a pulp mill owned by a company may buy chips from sawmills owned by one or more companies.
All these companies may compete against each other to buy logs from landowners, and the information about their respective suppliers may be highly proprietary business information; sharing this information directly or through a common customer may be improper and perceived as anti-competitive. A Chain-of-custody certificate documents and systematically verifies the flow of the materials from their origin in the forest to their end-use.
Knowing the context and conditions surrounding the harvesting of the raw materials and the manufacturing processes of the products is important. A knowledgeable buyer will be in a better position to properly assess the social and environmental claims of a product e. When information to support the claims of the product is not complete, accurate, or enough for the buyer to properly assess these claims, monitoring and verification are used to add credibility to the process.
In some cases information may come from long and well-established business relationships. In other cases the buyer may wish to consult outside sources for additional information. Monitoring and verification systems tend to be designed differently depending on which part or aspect of the supply chain production in the forest or manufacturing processes they address:.
Areas with higher risk of encountering unacceptable practices require more due diligence and more detailed information than areas with lower risk.